The polyphenol resveratrol promotes skeletal growth in mice through a sirtuin 1-bone morphogenic protein 2 longevity axis.
Zhao M., Ko S-Y., Garrett IR., Mundy GR., Gutierrez GE., Edwards JR.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) exists in high quantities in certain foods (e.g. grapes and nuts). However, the capacity of RSV to confer physiological health benefits and a biological mechanism through which this might occur remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Aged, RSV-treated (300 mg·kg-1 ·day-1 ) and genetically modified [endothelial NOS (eNOS-/- )] female mice were assessed using histomorphometric and μCT analysis. Alongside in vivo analysis, molecular siRNA knockdown and pharmacological manipulation of eNOS, BMP2 and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and functional cellular assays in an osteoblast cell line panel, explored the mechanism through which RSV might impact overall bone volume. KEY RESULTS: RSV promoted osteoblast activity and bone growth in vivo. RSV dose-dependently and simultaneously increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and eNOS levels. Similarly, NO-donor treatment increased ALP, runt homology transcription factor 2, BMP2 and stimulated bone formation, whilst eNOS-deficient mice displayed a bone loss phenotype. Moreover, RSV-induced increase in ALP and BMP2 expression was blocked in eNOS-/- osteoblasts and by BMP-inhibitor noggin. The longevity-linked SIRT1 enzyme was positively regulated by RSV and SIRT1 deletion reduced eNOS, BMP2 and ALP. Like eNOS deletion, loss of SIRT1 blocked RSV-induced osteoblast activity; however, SIRT1 levels remained unchanged in eNOS-/- mice, indicating RSV activation of SIRT1 stimulates BMP2 release via eNOS. This signalling axis is supported by decreased SIRT1, eNOS and BMP2 confirmed in old versus young bone. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings suggest a new mechanism of action in bone remodelling and the ageing skeleton, where RSV positively impacts bone homeostasis via SIRT1 activation of BMP2.