Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) occurs via a virological synapse (VS), a tight cell-cell junction formed between HIV-infected cells and target cells in which the HIV-1-infected cell polarizes and releases virions toward the noninfected target cell in a gp120- and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-dependent process. The response of the target cell has been less studied. We utilized supported planar bilayers presenting gp120 and ICAM-1 as a reductionist model for the infected-cell membrane and investigated its effect on the target CD4 T cell. This study shows that HIV-1 gp120 interaction with its receptors is initially organized into microclusters that undergo F-actin-dependent consolidation into a central supramolecular activation complex (cSMAC). Src kinases are active in both gp120 microclusters and in the VS cSMAC. The early T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling machinery is partially activated at the VS, and signaling does not propagate to trigger Ca(2+) elevation or increase CD69 expression. However, these partial TCR signals act locally to create an F-actin-depleted zone. We propose a model in which the F-actin-depleted zone formed within the target CD4 T cell enhances the reception of virions by releasing the physical barrier for HIV-1 entry and facilitating postentry events.

Original publication

DOI

10.1128/JVI.01440-09

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Virol

Publication Date

11/2009

Volume

83

Pages

11341 - 11355

Keywords

Actins, Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing, CD3 Complex, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cell Membrane, Cells, Cultured, Enzyme Activation, HIV Envelope Protein gp120, HIV-1, Humans, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, Intercellular Junctions, Lymphocyte Specific Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56(lck), Membrane Proteins, Phospholipase C gamma, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, Signal Transduction, Virus Internalization, ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase