Principles of dimer-specific gene regulation revealed by a comprehensive characterization of NF-κB family DNA binding
Siggers T., Chang AB., Teixeira A., Wong D., Williams KJ., Ahmed B., Ragoussis J., Udalova IA., Smale ST., Bulyk ML.
The unique DNA-binding properties of distinct NF-κB dimers influence the selective regulation of NF-κB target genes. To more thoroughly investigate these dimer-specific differences, we combined protein-binding microarrays and surface plasmon resonance to evaluate DNA sites recognized by eight different NF-κB dimers. We observed three distinct binding-specificity classes and clarified mechanisms by which dimers might regulate distinct sets of genes. We identified many new nontraditional NF-κB binding site (κB site) sequences and highlight the plasticity of NF-κB dimers in recognizing κB sites with a single consensus half-site. This study provides a database that can be used in efforts to identify NF-κB target sites and uncover gene regulatory circuitry. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.