Comparative risk of acute myocardial infarction for anti-osteoporosis drugs in primary care: a meta-analysis of propensity-matched cohort findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and the Catalan SIDIAP Database.
Khalid S., Calderon-Larranaga S., Sami A., Hawley S., Judge A., Arden N., Van Staa TP., Cooper C., Abrahamsen B., Javaid MK., Prieto-Alhambra D.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients taking osteoporosis medication. Patients were taken from the SIDIAP or CPRD database and were matched using propensity scores. Patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease taking SERMs were at an increased risk. The results favour the cardiovascular safety of alendronate as a first-line choice for osteoporosis treatment. INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate the comparative safety of anti-osteoporosis drugs based on the observed risk of acute myocardial infarction while on treatment in a primary care setting. METHODS: This is a propensity-matched cohort study and meta-analysis. This study was conducted in two primary care record databases covering UK NHS (CPRD) and Catalan healthcare (SIDIAP) patients during 1995-2014 and 2006-2014, respectively. The outcome was acute myocardial infarction while on treatment. Users of alendronate (reference group) were compared to those of (1) other oral bisphosphonates (OBP), (2) strontium ranelate (SR), and (3) selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM), after matching on baseline characteristics (socio-demographics, fracture risk factors, comorbidities, and concomitant drug use) using propensity scores. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing data on confounders and competing risk modelling for the calculation of relative risk (sub-distribution hazard ratios (SHR)) according to therapy. Country-specific data were analysed individually and meta-analysed. RESULTS: A 10% increased risk of acute myocardial infarction was found in users of other bisphosphonates as compared to alendronate users within CPRD. The meta-analysis of CPRD and SIDIAP results showed a 9% increased risk in users of other bisphosphonate as compared to alendronate users. Sensitivity analysis showed SERMS users with diabetes and chronic kidney disease were at an elevated risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides additional data on the risk of acute myocardial infarction in patients receiving osteoporosis treatment. The results favour the cardiovascular safety of alendronate as a first-line choice for osteoporosis treatment.