A new corrosion-inhibiting strategy for biodegradable magnesium: reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH).
Park J., Park M., Seo H., Han H-S., Lee J-Y., Koo D., Kim K., Cha P-R., Edwards J., Kim Y-W., Lee K-S., Ok M-R., Jeon H., Seok H-K., Kim Y-C.
Utilization of biodegradable metals in biomedical fields is emerging because it avoids high-risk and uneconomic secondary surgeries for removing implantable devices. Mg and its alloys are considered optimum materials for biodegradable implantable devices because of their high biocompatibility; however, their excessive and uncontrollable biodegradation is a difficult challenge to overcome. Here, we present a novel method of inhibiting Mg biodegradation by utilizing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), an endogenous cofactor present in all living cells. Incorporating NADH significantly increases Mg corrosion resistance by promoting the formation of thick and dense protective layers. The unique mechanism by which NADH enables corrosion inhibition was discovered by combined microscopic and spectroscopic analyses. NADH is initially self-adsorbed onto the surface of Mg oxide layers, preventing Cl- ions from dissolving Mg oxides, and later recruits Ca2+ ions to form stable Ca-P protective layers. Furthermore, stability of NADH as a corrosion inhibitor of Mg under physiological conditions were confirmed using cell tests. Moreover, excellent cell adhesion and viability to Mg treated with NADH shows the feasibility of introduction of NADH to Mg-based implantable system. Our strategy using NADH suggests an interesting new way of delaying the degradation of Mg and demonstrates potential roles for biomolecules in the engineering the biodegradability of metals.