Increased 15-PGDH expression leads to dysregulated resolution responses in stromal cells from patients with chronic tendinopathy.
Dakin SG., Ly L., Colas RA., Oppermann U., Wheway K., Watkins B., Dalli J., Carr AJ.
The mechanisms underpinning the failure of inflammation to resolve in diseased musculoskeletal soft tissues are unknown. Herein, we studied bioactive lipid mediator (LM) profiles of tendon-derived stromal cells isolated from healthy donors and patients with chronic tendinopathy. Interleukin(IL)-1β treatment markedly induced prostaglandin biosynthesis in diseased compared to healthy tendon cells, and up regulated the formation of several pro-resolving mediators including 15-epi-LXA4 and MaR1. Incubation of IL-1β stimulated healthy tendon cells with 15-epi-LXA4 or MaR1 down-regulated PGE2 and PGD2 production. When these mediators were incubated with diseased cells, we only found a modest down regulation in prostanoid concentrations, whereas it led to significant decreases in IL-6 and Podoplanin expression. In diseased tendon cells, we also found increased 15-Prostaglandin Dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) expression as well as increased concentrations of both 15-epi-LXA4 and MaR1 further metabolites, 15-oxo-LXA4 and 14-oxo-MaR1. Inhibition of 15-PGDH using either indomethacin or SW033291 significantly reduced the further conversion of 15-epi-LXA4 and MaR1 and regulated expression of IL-6, PDPN and STAT-1. Taken together these results suggest that chronic inflammation in musculoskeletal soft tissues may result from dysregulated LM-SPM production, and that inhibition of 15-PGDH activity together with promoting resolution using SPM represents a novel therapeutic strategy to resolve chronic tendon inflammation.