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A fundamental role of the mammalian immune system is to eradicate pathogens while minimizing immunopathology. Instigating and maintaining immunological tolerance within the intestine represents a unique challenge to the mucosal immune system. Regulatory T cells are critical for continued immune tolerance in the intestine through active control of innate and adaptive immune responses. Dynamic adaptation of regulatory T-cell populations to the intestinal tissue microenvironment is key in this process. Here, we discuss specialization of regulatory T-cell responses in the intestine, and how a breakdown in these processes can lead to chronic intestinal inflammation.

Original publication




Journal article


Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol

Publication Date





Antigen-Presenting Cells, Gastrointestinal Tract, Humans, Immune Tolerance, Immunity, Cellular, Interleukin-10, Intestines, Microbiota, Models, Immunological, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Transforming Growth Factor beta