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MMP activities are controlled by a combination of proteolytic pro-enzyme activation steps and inhibition by endogenous inhibitors like alpha2-macroglobulin and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). TIMPs are the key inhibitors in tissue. The expression of both MMPs and TIMPs is controlled during tissue remodeling to maintain a balance in the turnover of extracellular matrix. Disruption of this balance may result in a broad spectrum of diseases. Additionally, TIMP-2 has been reported to have growth factor activities. To further study the function of TIMP-2 in development, we utilized zebrafish as an experimental model system. We have successfully isolated a TIMP-2 homologue from zebrafish (zTIMP-2). This zebrafish TIMP-2 showed high similarity to human TIMP-2 with all critical features conserved. Whole-mount in situ analysis showed that zTIMP-2 was expressed as early as the one-cell stage indicating a maternal origin. This expression continued through later stages of development. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the early expression pattern from the 16-cell stage through blastula, gastrula and 24-h stages. In addition, at the protein level, immunoreactive zTIMP-2 was detected using antibody against recombinant human TIMP-2. RFP-reporter analysis indicated that TIMP-2 can be secreted into the extracellular space where ECM is forming. Functional studies showed that the balance of TIMP-2 expression is important to normal development as reflected by the fact that both blockage of TIMP-2 translation using antisense morpholino oligonculeotides or increased translation of TIMP-2 using a mRNA microinjection approach resulted in abnormal zebrafish development. This is in contrast to murine knockout studies that indicate that TIMP-2 does not have a major role in mouse embryogenesis.

Original publication




Journal article


Dev Genes Evol

Publication Date





382 - 389


Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Cloning, Molecular, Embryo, Nonmammalian, Models, Animal, Molecular Sequence Data, Sequence Alignment, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2, Zebrafish