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The aim of this study was to explore the association between developing coronal-plane leg alignment and activity levels during adolescence. We performed a cross-sectional cohort study with individuals from soccer club academies and an age-matched control population. Outcome measures were the hip knee angle (HKA), medial proximal tibial physeal angle (MPTPhyA), lateral distal femoral physeal angle (LDFPhyA) on full leg length magnetic reasonance imagine scans, and the physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) score. The cohort comprised 57 elite male soccer players, 34 male and 34 female controls aged 11-21 years. Mean HKA became more varus with age, with little change after 16 years or skeletal maturity. Skeletally mature elite male soccer players were significantly more varus than male controls with a HKA 2.28° less than male controls (p 

Original publication




Journal article


J Orthop Res

Publication Date



exercise load, genu varum, leg alignment, proximal tibial physis