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In mice, the IgG subclass induced after Ag encounter can reflect the nature of the Ag. Th2 Ags such as alum-precipitated proteins and helminths induce IgG1, whereas Th1 Ags, such as Salmonella Typhimurium, predominantly induce IgG2a. The contribution of different IgG isotypes to protection against bacteria such as S. Typhimurium is unclear, although as IgG2a is induced by natural infection, it is assumed this isotype is important. Previously, we have shown that purified S. Typhimurium porins including outer membrane protein OmpD, which induce both IgG1 and IgG2a in mice, provide protection to S. Typhimurium infection via Ab. In this study we report the unexpected finding that mice lacking IgG1, but not IgG2a, are substantially less protected after porin immunization than wild-type controls. IgG1-deficient mice produce more porin-specific IgG2a, resulting in total IgG levels that are similar to wild-type mice. The decreased protection in IgG1-deficient mice correlates with less efficient bacterial opsonization and uptake by macrophages, and this reflects the low binding of outer membrane protein OmpD-specific IgG2a to the bacterial surface. Thus, the Th2-associated isotype IgG1 can play a role in protection against Th1-associated organisms such as S. Typhimurium. Therefore, individual IgG subclasses to a single Ag can provide different levels of protection and the IgG isotype induced may need to be a consideration when designing vaccines and immunization strategies.

Original publication




Journal article


J Immunol

Publication Date





4103 - 4109


Animals, Antibodies, Bacterial, Antigen-Antibody Reactions, Bacterial Adhesion, Bacterial Proteins, Cell Line, Female, IgG Deficiency, Immunization, Immunoglobulin Class Switching, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin Isotypes, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Phagocytosis, Porins, Salmonella Infections, Animal, Salmonella Vaccines, Salmonella typhimurium