A comparative evaluation of the effect of polymer chemistry and fiber orientation on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.
Rowland DCL., Aquilina T., Klein A., Hakimi O., Alexis-Mouthuy P., Carr AJ., Snelling SJB.
Bioengineered tissue scaffolds in combination with cells hold great promise for tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine how the chemistry and fiber orientation of engineered scaffolds affect the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation on aligned and randomly orientated electrospun scaffolds of Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and Polydioxanone (PDO) were compared. MSCs were seeded onto scaffolds and cultured for 14 days under adipogenic-, chondrogenic-, or osteogenic-inducing conditions. Cell viability was assessed by alamarBlue metabolic activity assays and gene expression was determined by qRT-PCR. Cell-scaffold interactions were visualized using fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Cells grew in response to scaffold fiber orientation and cell viability, cell coverage, and gene expression analysis showed that PDO supports greater multilineage differentiation of MSCs. An aligned PDO scaffold supports highest adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation whereas fiber orientation did not have a consistent effect on chondrogenesis. Electrospun scaffolds, selected on the basis of fiber chemistry and alignment parameters could provide great therapeutic potential for restoration of fat, cartilage, and bone tissue. This study supports the continued investigation of an electrospun PDO scaffold for tissue repair and regeneration and highlights the potential of optimizing fiber orientation for improved utility. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2843-2853, 2016.