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The coordination of T-cell migration and antigen recognition is crucial for an effective immune response. We have proposed that this coordination is achieved by formation of an immunological synapse between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell (APC). Our view contrasts with the serial encounter model also proposed in this issue of Trends in Immunology, which is based on transient T cell-APC interactions when surrounded by collagen. Here, we propose a model that reconciles immunological synapse formation and serial encounters based on environmental control of immunological synapse formation.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Immunol

Publication Date





192 - 194


Animals, Antigen-Presenting Cells, Cell Movement, Chemokines, Collagen, Extracellular Matrix, Lymph Nodes, Lymphocyte Activation, Models, Immunological, Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, Signal Transduction, T-Lymphocytes, Time Factors