Gram-positive bacteria cell wall-derived lipoteichoic acid induces inflammatory alveolar bone loss through prostaglandin E production in osteoblasts
Tominari T., Sanada A., Ichimaru R., Matsumoto C., Hirata M., Itoh Y., Numabe Y., Miyaura C., Inada M.
AbstractPeriodontitis is an inflammatory disease associated with severe alveolar bone loss and is dominantly induced by lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria; however, the role of Gram-positive bacteria in periodontal bone resorption remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a major cell-wall factor of Gram-positive bacteria, on the progression of inflammatory alveolar bone loss in a model of periodontitis. In coculture of mouse primary osteoblasts and bone marrow cells, LTA induced osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. LTA enhanced the production of PGE2 accompanying the upregulation of the mRNA expression of mPGES-1, COX-2 and RANKL in osteoblasts. The addition of indomethacin effectively blocked the LTA-induced osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the production of PGE2. Using ex vivo organ cultures of mouse alveolar bone, we found that LTA induced alveolar bone resorption and that this was suppressed by indomethacin. In an experimental model of periodontitis, LTA was locally injected into the mouse lower gingiva, and we clearly detected alveolar bone destruction using 3D-μCT. We herein demonstrate a new concept indicating that Gram-positive bacteria in addition to Gram-negative bacteria are associated with the progression of periodontal bone loss.