A longitudinal cohort study of adolescent elite footballers and controls investigating the development of cam morphology
Fernquest S., Palmer A., Gimpel M., Birchall R., Broomfield J., Wedatilake T., Dijkstra H., Burchall J., Lloyd T., Pereira C., Newman S., Carr A., Glyn-Jones S.
AbstractCam morphology describes an asphericity of the femoral head that develops during adolescence, is highly prevalent in athletes, and predisposes individuals to future osteoarthritis. However, it’s aetiology remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to perform 3-year longitudinal follow-up of a control population and football club academy cohort to compare the change in hip and growth plate anatomy between athletes and controls. MRI and questionnaires were used to characterise change in hip and growth plate anatomy and quantify activity levels. 121 male academy footballers and 107 male and female controls participated at baseline. Footballers experienced significantly greater increases in femoral head asphericity (4.83 degrees (95% CI: 2.84 to 6.82), p < 0.001) than controls. A positive correlation existed between activity levels and change in femoral head morphology (coefficient 0.79, p ≤ 0.001). Greatest morphological change occurred in individuals aged 11–12 years at baseline, with no significant change in individuals aged 14 years and older at baseline. Cam morphology development was secondary to soft tissue hypertrophy and lateral growth plate extension. In conclusion, excessive loading of the hip joint through exercise prior to 14 years of age may result in growth plate adaptations causing cam morphology. Potential interventions may include training type and load modification in young adolescent football players.