AbstractSevere lung damage in COVID-19 involves complex interactions between diverse populations of immune and stromal cells. In this study, we used a spatial transcriptomics approach to delineate the cells, pathways and genes present across the spectrum of histopathological damage in COVID-19 lung tissue. We applied correlation network-based approaches to deconvolve gene expression data from areas of interest within well preserved post-mortem lung samples from three patients. Despite substantial inter-patient heterogeneity we discovered evidence for a common immune cell signaling circuit in areas of severe tissue that involves crosstalk between cytotoxic lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory macrophages. Expression of IFNG by cytotoxic lymphocytes was associated with induction of chemokines including CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 which are known to promote the recruitment of CXCR3+ immune cells. The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members BAFF (TNFSF13B) and TRAIL (TNFSF10) were found to be consistently upregulated in the areas with severe tissue damage. We used published spatial and single cell SARS-CoV-2 datasets to confirm our findings in the lung tissue from additional cohorts of COVID-19 patients. The resulting model of severe COVID-19 immune-mediated tissue pathology may inform future therapeutic strategies.One Sentence SummarySpatial analysis identifies IFNγ response signatures as focal to severe alveolar damage in COVID-19 pneumonitis.

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