Clinical outcome of bi-unicompartmental knee arthroplasty for both medial and lateral femorotibial arthritis: a systematic review-is there proof of concept?
Wada K., Price A., Gromov K., Lustig S., Troelsen A.
INTRODUCTION: Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a well-accepted treatment for isolated unicompartmental osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. In previous literature, it has been suggested that bi-unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (bi-UKA) which uses two UKA implants in both the medial and lateral compartments of the same knee is a feasible and viable option for the treatment of knee OA. Given the advantages of UKA treatment, it is warranted to review the literature of bi-UKA and discuss the evidence in terms of implant selection, indications, surgical techniques, and outcomes, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched for studies presenting outcome of bi-UKA. Studies were included if they reported clinical outcomes using two unicompartmental prostheses for both medial and lateral femorotibial arthritis. Studies with the addition of patellofemoral arthroplasty or concomitant soft-tissue reconstruction and those not published in English were excluded. RESULTS: In the early literature, the procedure of bi-UKA were performed for very severe OA and rheumatoid arthritis, but indications have evolved to reflect a more contemporary case-mix of knee OA patients. Both mobile and fixed bearing implants have been used, with the latter being the most frequent choice. A medial parapatellar approach for incision and arthrotomy has been the most frequently used technique. The present review found a promising clinical outcome of both simultaneous and staged bi-UKA although the number of long-term follow-up studies was limited. CONCLUSIONS: Both simultaneous and staged bi-UKA has demonstrated good functional outcomes. However, the volume and level of evidence in general is low for studies captured in this review, and the data on long-term outcomes remain limited. The present review indicates that bi-UKA is a feasible and viable surgical option for bicompartmental femorotibial OA in carefully selected patients.