Organization of immunological synapses and kinapses
Fritzsche M., Dustin ML.
© 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Immunological synapses and kinapses describe two modes through which cells of the immune system exchange information based on specific recognition. This chapter focuses on T-cell immunological synapses, particularly, the structural aspects building from molecules that undergo stepwise assembly into the complex supramolecular activation clusters that captivated biology 20 years ago. Modern imaging methods have provided insights into the linkage between physical processes such as liquid-phase separation in adhesion, membrane, and signaling layers of the interface. These processes then link to the F-actin cortex and dramatic changes in membrane topology emerging from exocytic, endocytic, and extracellular vesicle budding mechanisms to shape and maintain this intricate communication interface.