The autoimmune-associated genetic variant PTPN22 R620W enhances neutrophil activation and function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy individuals.
Bayley R., Kite KA., McGettrick HM., Smith JP., Kitas GD., Buckley CD., Young SP.
OBJECTIVES: A genetic variant of the leukocyte phosphatase PTPN22 (R620W) is strongly associated with autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Functional studies on the variant have focussed on lymphocytes, but it is most highly expressed in neutrophils. We have investigated the effects of the variant on neutrophil function in health and in patients with RA. METHODS: Healthy individuals and patients with RA were genotyped for PTPN22 (R620W) and neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood. Neutrophil adhesion and migration across inflamed endothelium were measured. Calcium (Ca(2+)) release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to fMLP stimulation were also assessed. RESULTS: Expression of R620W enhanced neutrophil migration through cytokine activated endothelium (non-R620W=24%, R620W=45% migrating cells, p<0.001). Following fMLP stimulation, neutrophils that were heterozygous and homozygous for R620W released significantly more Ca(2+) when compared to non-R620W neutrophils, in healthy individuals and patients with RA. fMLP stimulation, after TNF-α priming, provoked more ROS from neutrophils heterozygous for R620W in patients with RA (non-R620W vs R620W=∼1.75-fold increase) and healthy individuals (non-R620W vs R620W=fourfold increase) and this increase was statistically significant in healthy individuals (p<0.001) but not in patients with RA (p<0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Expression of PTPN22 (R620W) enhanced neutrophil effector functions in health and RA, with migration, Ca(2+) release and production of ROS increased. Neutrophils are found in large numbers in the RA joint, and this hyperactivity of R620W cells may directly contribute to the joint damage, as well as to the initiation and perpetuation of the chronic immune-mediated inflammatory processes driving the disease.