Conserved kappa B element located downstream of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene: distinct NF-kappa B binding pattern and enhancer activity in LPS activated murine macrophages.
Kuprash DV., Udalova IA., Turetskaya RL., Rice NR., Nedospasov SA.
Transcriptional activation of various genes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to be mediated, at least in part, by the NF-kappa B/Rel family of transcription factors. We have identified a novel kappa B element located immediately downstream of the TNF-alpha gene that is conserved together with its flanking sequences across species lines and can act as an LPS-responsive enhancer for reporter gene constructs driven by the minimal TNF promoter. In extracts from activated murine macrophages and macrophage cell lines this element binds several non-canonical NF-kappa B/Rel complexes, in addition to p50 (NFKB1) homodimer and p50-p65 (NKFB1-RelA) heterodimer. Combination of high-resolution electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with monospecific antibodies and u.v.-cross-linking indicates that the prominent slow migrating complex III contain p65 homodimer and c-Rel. The appearance of complex III in EMSA parallels the translocation of p65 and c-Rel into the nucleus and occurs shortly after LPS induction. Transfection experiments with reporter constructs driven by this kappa B element indicate strong inducibility by LPS and p65, moderate inducibility by c-Rel and repression by p50. Functional activity of sandwich TNF-CAT-TNF constructs further suggests that LPS-inducible transcriptional activation of the TNF gene in murine macrophages may be partly mediated by a downstream enhancer.