T cell-mediated signaling to vascular endothelium: induction of cytokines, chemokines, and tissue factor.
Monaco C., Andreakos E., Young S., Feldmann M., Paleolog E.
Adhesion of leukocytes to the vascular endothelium is an early event in inflammation. Since cell-cell signaling may be an important stimulus for endothelial activation, we focused in this study on the role of contact-mediated activation by T lymphocytes of endothelial cells (EC). T lymphocytes were cultured with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody or in the presence of a combination of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-2, prior to fixation and coculture with human umbilical vein EC. Fixed, activated (anti-CD3- or cytokine-stimulated), but not unstimulated T cells, induced release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-8, and IL-6 by EC in a contact-dependent manner. Moreover, expression of tissue-factor antigen and activity was also significantly increased. Addition of anti-CD40 ligand antibody abolished T cell-induced activation of EC. Our data suggest that contact-mediated activation of EC by T cells, involving ligand:counter ligand interactions such as CD40:CD40 ligand, may represent a novel pathogenic mechanism of progression in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis.