Investigation of nuclear factor-κB inhibitors and interleukin-10 as regulators of inflammatory signalling in human adipocytes.
Turner JJ., Foxwell KM., Kanji R., Brenner C., Wood S., Foxwell BM., Feldmann M.
The poor prognosis of obesity is now known to involve a proinflammatory state associated with elevated circulating levels of cytokines and with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. In particular, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-driven adipose inflammation has been implicated recently in obesity and the development of diabetes. Adipocytes are now recognized as an important source of cytokine and chemokine production, including interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotractant protein (MCP)-1, and this appears to be a key step in the development of the obesity-associated inflammatory state. Interventions targeted at adipocyte inflammation may therefore form novel therapies to treat or prevent medical complications of obesity. We set out to explore whether anti-inflammatory interventions which are effective in conventional immune cells would operate on primary human cultures of in-vitro differentiated adipocytes. IL-10 was ineffective against TLR-4-induced cytokine secretion due to lack of IL-10 receptor on human adipocytes, in contrast to the widely used murine 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, which is known to respond to IL-10. Adenoviral delivery of an IL-10 receptor construct to the cells restored IL-10 responsiveness as assessed by signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation. However, the small molecule nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitors 2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-thiophenecarboxamide (TPCA)-1 and carbobenzoxyl-Ile-Glu(O-t-butyl)-Ala-leucinal (PSI) as well as adenovirally delivered dominant negative inhibitor of IkappaB kinase 2 (IKK2) and wild-type IκBα were effective inhibitors of TLR-4-driven IL-6 and MCP-1 induction. These data identify a central role for canonical NF-κB signalling in adipocyte cytokine induction and indicate that small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB may form the basis of future treatments for obesity-related conditions where adipocyte inflammatory signalling is implicated.