Mmp14 is required for matrisome homeostasis and circadian rhythm in fibroblasts.
Yeung C-YC., Garva R., Pickard A., Lu Y., Mallikarjun V., Swift J., Taylor SH., Rai J., Eyre DR., Chaturvedi M., Itoh Y., Meng Q-J., Mauch C., Zigrino P., Kadler KE.
The circadian clock in tendon regulates the daily rhythmic synthesis of collagen-I and the appearance and disappearance of small-diameter collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix. How the fibrils are assembled and removed is not fully understood. Here, we first showed that the collagenase, membrane type I-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, encoded by Mmp14), is regulated by the circadian clock in postnatal mouse tendon. Next, we generated tamoxifen-induced Col1a2-Cre-ERT2::Mmp14 KO mice (Mmp14 conditional knockout (CKO)). The CKO mice developed hind limb dorsiflexion and thickened tendons, which accumulated narrow-diameter collagen fibrils causing ultrastructural disorganization. Mass spectrometry of control tendons identified 1195 proteins of which 212 showed time-dependent abundance. In Mmp14 CKO mice 19 proteins had reversed temporal abundance and 176 proteins lost time dependency. Among these, the collagen crosslinking enzymes lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) and lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1; encoded by Plod2) were elevated and had lost time-dependent regulation. High-pressure chromatography confirmed elevated levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde (pyridinoline) crosslinking of collagen in CKO tendons. As a result, collagen-I was refractory to extraction. We also showed that CRISPR-Cas9 deletion of Mmp14 from cultured fibroblasts resulted in loss of circadian clock rhythmicity of period 2 (PER2), and recombinant MT1-MMP was highly effective at cleaving soluble collagen-I but less effective at cleaving collagen pre-assembled into fibrils. In conclusion, our study shows that circadian clock-regulated Mmp14 controls the rhythmic synthesis of small diameter collagen fibrils, regulates collagen crosslinking, and its absence disrupts the circadian clock and matrisome in tendon fibroblasts.