IRF5:RelA interaction targets inflammatory genes in macrophages
Saliba DG., Heger A., Eames HL., Oikonomopoulos S., Teixeira A., Blazek K., Androulidaki A., Wong D., Goh FG., Weiss M., Byrne A., Pasparakis M., Ragoussis J., Udalova IA.
© 2014 The Authors. Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) plays a major role in setting up an inflammatory macrophage phenotype, but the molecular basis of its transcriptional activity is not fully understood. In this study, we conduct a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of IRF5 recruitment in macrophages stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and discover that IRF5 binds to regulatory elements of highly transcribed genes. Analysis of protein:DNA microarrays demonstrates that IRF5 recognizes the canonical IRF-binding (interferon-stimulated response element [ISRE]) motif invitro. However, IRF5 binding invivo appears to rely on its interactions with other proteins. IRF5 binds to a noncanonical composite PU.1:ISRE motif, and its recruitment is aided by RelA. Global gene expression analysis in macrophages deficient in IRF5 and RelA highlights the direct role of the RelA:IRF5 cistrome in regulation of a subset of key inflammatory genes. We map the RelA:IRF5 interaction domain and suggest that interfering with it would offer selective targeting of macrophage inflammatory activities.