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The principles and surgical techniques on which plastic surgery is based have evolved over hundreds of years. However, modern day plastic and reconstructive surgery emerged as a specialty during the two World Wars. As a surgical specialty, it is seldom limited by anatomy or disease and so it remains one of the few interface specialties where surgeons work closely with colleagues across a wide range of fields. Plastic surgery continues to benefit from technical advancement. However, biomedical research is likely to yield the next breakthroughs in the treatment of plastic surgery patients. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

Original publication




Journal article

Publication Date



923 - 940