Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 induces a stop signal and virological synapse formation in noninfected CD4+ T cells.
Vasiliver-Shamis G., Tuen M., Wu TW., Starr T., Cameron TO., Thomson R., Kaur G., Liu J., Visciano ML., Li H., Kumar R., Ansari R., Han DP., Cho MW., Dustin ML., Hioe CE.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected T cells form a virological synapse with noninfected CD4(+) T cells in order to efficiently transfer HIV-1 virions from cell to cell. The virological synapse is a specialized cellular junction that is similar in some respects to the immunological synapse involved in T-cell activation and effector functions mediated by the T-cell antigen receptor. The immunological synapse stops T-cell migration to allow a sustained interaction between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells. Here, we have asked whether HIV-1 envelope gp120 presented on a surface to mimic an HIV-1-infected cell also delivers a stop signal and if this is sufficient to induce a virological synapse. We demonstrate that HIV-1 gp120-presenting surfaces arrested the migration of primary activated CD4 T cells that occurs spontaneously in the presence of ICAM-1 and induced the formation of a virological synapse, which was characterized by segregated supramolecular structures with a central cluster of envelope surrounded by a ring of ICAM-1. The virological synapse was formed transiently, with the initiation of migration within 30 min. Thus, HIV-1 gp120-presenting surfaces induce a transient stop signal and supramolecular segregation in noninfected CD4(+) T cells.