Spatiotemporal regulation of T cell costimulation by TCR-CD28 microclusters and protein kinase C theta translocation.
Yokosuka T., Kobayashi W., Sakata-Sogawa K., Takamatsu M., Hashimoto-Tane A., Dustin ML., Tokunaga M., Saito T.
T cell activation is mediated by microclusters (MCs) containing T cell receptors (TCRs), kinases, and adaptors. Although TCR MCs translocate to form a central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) of the immunological synapse at the interface of a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell, the role of MC translocation in T cell signaling remains unclear. Here, we found that the accumulation of MCs at cSMAC was important for T cell costimulation. Costimulatory receptor CD28 was initially recruited coordinately with TCR to MCs, and its signals were mediated through the assembly with the kinase PKCtheta. The accumulation of MCs at the cSMAC was accompanied by the segregation of CD28 from the TCR, which resulted in the translocation of both CD28 and PKCtheta to a spatially unique subregion of cSMAC. Thus, costimulation is mediated by the generation of a unique costimulatory compartment in the cSMAC via the dynamic regulation of MC translocation.