Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mediates endocytic clearance of pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2 complex through a thrombospondin-independent mechanism.
Emonard H., Bellon G., Troeberg L., Berton A., Robinet A., Henriet P., Marbaix E., Kirkegaard K., Patthy L., Eeckhout Y., Nagase H., Hornebeck W., Courtoy PJ.
The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) mediates the endocytic clearance of various proteinases and proteinase.inhibitor complexes, including thrombospondin (TSP)-dependent endocytosis of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 (or gelatinase A), a key effector of extracellular matrix remodeling and cancer progression. However, the zymogen of MMP-2 (pro-MMP-2) mostly occurs in tissues as a complex with the tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP-2). Here we show that clearance of the pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2 complex is also mediated by LRP, because addition of receptor-associated protein (RAP), a natural LRP ligand antagonist, inhibited endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of (125)I-pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2. Both TIMP-2 and the pro-MMP-2 collagen-binding domain independently competed for endocytosis of (125)I-pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2 complex. Surface plasmon resonance studies indicated that pro-MMP-2, TIMP-2, and pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2 directly interact with LRP in the absence of TSP. LRP-mediated endocytic clearance of (125)I-pro-MMP-2 was inhibited by anti-TSP antibodies and accelerated upon complexing with TSP-1, but these treatments had no effect on (125)I-pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2 uptake. This implies that mechanisms of clearance by LRP of pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2 complex are different. Interestingly, RAP did not inhibit binding of (125)I-pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2 to the cell surface. We conclude that clearance of pro-MMP-2.TIMP-2 complex is a TSP-independent two-step process, involving (i) initial binding to the cell membrane in a RAP-insensitive manner and (ii) subsequent LRP-dependent (RAP-sensitive) internalization and degradation.