TNF autovaccination induces self anti-TNF antibodies and inhibits metastasis in a murine melanoma model.
Waterston AM., Salway F., Andreakos E., Butler DM., Feldmann M., Coombes RC.
TNF is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, but also in metastasis in certain types of cancer. In terms of therapy, TNF is targeted by anti-TNF neutralising monoclonal antibodies or soluble TNF receptors. Recently, a novel strategy based on the generation of self anti-TNF antibodies (TNF autovaccination) has been developed. We have previously shown that TNF autovaccination successfully generates high anti-TNF antibody titres, blocks TNF and ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice. In this study, we examined the ability of TNF autovaccination to generate anti-TNF antibody titres and block metastasis in the murine B16F10 melanoma model. We found that immunisation of C57BL/6 mice with TNF autovaccine produces a 100-fold antibody response to TNF compared to immunisation with phosphate-buffered saline vehicle control and significantly reduces both the number (P<0.01) and size of metastases (P<0.01) of B16F10 melanoma cells. This effect is also observed when an anti-TNF neutralising monoclonal antibody is administered, confirming the essential role TNF plays in metastasis in this model. This study suggests that TNF autovaccination is a cheaper and highly efficient alternative that can block TNF and reduce metastasis in vivo and trials with TNF autovaccination are already underway in patients with metastatic cancer.