BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have a complex polygenic aetiology. Rare genetic variants can cause monogenic intestinal inflammation. The impact of chromosomal aberrations and large structural abnormalities on IBD susceptibility is not clear. We aimed to comprehensively characterise the phenotype and prevalence of patients with IBD who possess rare numeric and structural chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of databases PubMed and Embase; analysed gnomAD, Clinvar, the 100,000 Genomes Project and DECIPHER databases. Further we analysed international paediatric IBD cohorts to investigate the role of IL2RA duplications in IBD susceptibility. RESULTS: A meta-analysis suggests that monosomy X (Turner syndrome) is associated with increased expressivity of IBD that exceeds the population baseline (1.86%, 95% CI 1.48-2.34%) and causes a younger age of IBD onset. There is little evidence that Klinefelter Syndrome, Trisomy 21, Trisomy 18, mosaic Trisomy 9 and 16, or partial trisomies contribute to IBD susceptibility. Copy number analysis studies suggest inconsistent results. Monoallelic loss of X-linked or haploinsufficient genes is associated with IBD by hemizygous or heterozygous deletions, respectively. However, haploinsufficient gene deletions are detected in healthy reference populations, suggesting that the expressivity of IBD might be overestimated. One duplication that has previously been identified as potentially contributing to IBD risk involves the IL2RA/IL15R loci. Here we provide additional evidence that a microduplication of this locus may predispose to very-early-onset IBD by identifying a second case in a distinct kindred. However, the penetrance of intestinal inflammation in this genetic aberration is low (<2.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Turner Syndrome is associated with increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation. Duplication of the IL2RA/IL15R loci may contribute to disease risk.
J Crohns Colitis
chromosomal aberrations, copy number variation, inflammatory bowel disease