Myeloid CD40 deficiency reduces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophages' transition into a pro-inflammatory state.
Bosmans LA., van Tiel CM., Aarts SABM., Willemsen L., Baardman J., van Os BW., den Toom M., Beckers L., Ahern DJ., Levels JHM., Jongejan A., Moerland PD., Verberk SGS., van den Bossche J., de Winther MMPJ., Weber C., Atzler D., Monaco C., Gerdes N., Shami A., Lutgens E.
AIMS: CD40 and its ligand, CD40L, play a critical role in driving atherosclerotic plaque development. Disrupted CD40-signaling reduces experimental atherosclerosis and induces a favourable stable plaque phenotype. We recently showed that small molecule-based inhibition of CD40-TNF Receptor Associated Factor-6 interactions attenuates atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic mice via macrophage-driven mechanisms. The present study aims to detail the function of myeloid CD40 in atherosclerosis using myeloid-specific CD40-deficient mice. METHOD AND RESULTS: Cd40flox/flox and LysM-cre Cd40flox/flox mice on an Apoe-/- background were generated (CD40wt and CD40mac-/-, respectively). Atherosclerotic lesion size, as well as plaque macrophage content, were reduced in CD40mac-/- compared to CD40wt mice and their plaques displayed a reduction in necrotic core size. Transcriptomics analysis of the CD40mac-/- atherosclerotic aorta revealed downregulated pathways of immune pathways and inflammatory responses.Loss of CD40 in macrophages changed the representation of aortic macrophage subsets. Mass cytometry analysis revealed a higher content of a subset of alternative or resident-like CD206 + CD209b- macrophages in the atherosclerotic aorta of CD40mac-/- compared to CD40wt mice. RNA-sequencing of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of CD40mac-/- mice demonstrated upregulation of genes associated with alternatively activated macrophages (including Folr2, Thbs1, Sdc1 and Tns1). CONCLUSIONS: We here show that absence of CD40 signalling in myeloid cells reduces atherosclerosis and limits systemic inflammation by preventing a shift in macrophage polarization towards pro-inflammatory states. Our study confirms the merit of macrophage-targeted inhibition of CD40 as a valuable therapeutic strategy to combat atherosclerosis.