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Adipose tissue (AT) plays a pivotal role in whole-body lipid and glucose homeostasis. AT exerts metabolic control through various immunological mechanisms that instigated a new research field termed immunometabolism. Here, we review AT-resident immune cells and their role as key players in immunometabolism. In lean subjects, AT-resident immune cells have housekeeping functions ranging from apoptotic cell clearance to extracellular matrix remodeling and angiogenesis. However, obesity provides bacterial and metabolic danger signals that mimic bacterial infection, and drives a shift in immune-cell phenotypes and numbers, classified as a prototypic T helper 1 (Th1) inflammatory response. The resulting AT inflammation and insulin resistance link obesity to its metabolic sequel, and suggests that targeted immunomodulatory interventions may be beneficial for obese patients.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.tem.2012.05.011

Type

Journal article

Journal

Trends Endocrinol Metab

Publication Date

08/2012

Volume

23

Pages

407 - 415

Keywords

Apoptosis, Bacterial Infections, Extracellular Matrix, Humans, Immune System, Immunity, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, Intra-Abdominal Fat, Metabolism, Neovascularization, Physiologic, Obesity, Th1 Cells