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INTRODUCTION: Hyaline articular cartilage is the connective tissue responsible for frictionless joint movement. Its degeneration ultimately results in complete loss of joint function in the late stages of osteoarthritis. Intrinsic repair is compromised, and cartilage tissue regeneration is difficult. However, new options are available to repair cartilage tissue by applying ESCs, MSCs and CPCs. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors shed light on the different concepts currently under investigation for cartilage repair. EXPERT OPINION: So far, there is no way to derive a chondrogenic lineage from stem cells that forms functional hyaline cartilage tissue in vivo. One alternative might be to enhance the chondrogenic potential of repair cells, which are already present in diseased cartilage tissue. CPCs found in diseased cartilage tissue in situ are biologically driven toward the osteochondrogenic lineage and can be directed toward chondrogenesis at least in vitro.

Original publication




Journal article


Expert Opin Biol Ther

Publication Date





541 - 548


Animals, Cartilage, Articular, Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy, Chondrogenesis, Humans, Osteoarthritis, Regeneration, Stem Cell Transplantation