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To differentiate the unique and overlapping functions of LFA-1 and Mac-1, LFA-1-deficient mice were developed by targeted homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, and neutrophil function was compared in vitro and in vivo with Mac-1-deficient, CD18-deficient, and wild-type mice. LFA-1-deficient mice exhibit leukocytosis but do not develop spontaneous infections, in contrast to CD18-deficient mice. After zymosan-activated serum stimulation, LFA-1-deficient neutrophils demonstrated activation, evidenced by up-regulation of surface Mac-1, but did not show increased adhesion to purified ICAM-1 or endothelial cells, similar to CD18-deficient neutrophils. Adhesion of Mac-1-deficient neutrophils significantly increased with stimulation, although adhesion was lower than for wild-type neutrophils. Evaluation of the strength of adhesion through LFA-1, Mac-1, and CD18 indicated a marked reduction in firm attachment, with increasing shear stress in LFA-1-deficient neutrophils, similar to CD18-deficient neutrophils, and only a modest reduction in Mac-1-deficient neutrophils. Leukocyte influx in a subcutaneous air pouch in response to TNF-alpha was reduced by 67% and 59% in LFA-1- and CD18-deficient mice but increased by 198% in Mac-1-deficient mice. Genetic deficiencies demonstrate that both LFA-1 and Mac-1 contribute to adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells and ICAM-1, but adhesion through LFA-1 overshadows the contribution from Mac-1. Neutrophil extravasation in response to TNF-alpha in LFA-1-deficient mice dramatically decreased, whereas neutrophil extravasation in Mac-1-deficient mice markedly increased.


Journal article


J Immunol

Publication Date





5029 - 5038


Animals, CD18 Antigens, Cell Adhesion, Cell Movement, Chemotaxis, Leukocyte, Diffusion Chambers, Culture, Female, Injections, Subcutaneous, Interphase, Lymphocyte Activation, Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1, Macrophage-1 Antigen, Male, Membrane Proteins, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Neutrophils, Stress, Mechanical, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha