Transendothelial migration confers a survival advantage to activated T lymphocytes: role of LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions.
Borthwick NJ., Akbar AA., Buckley C., Pilling D., Salmon M., Jewell AP., Yong KL.
The clearance of activated T lymphocytes by apoptosis is an essential component in the resolution of the immune response; however, certain signals received within inflamed tissue may result in the persistence of activated T cells. Our previous work has shown that, when compared with resting cells, effector cells migrate more efficiently across endothelium, thus such cells may be selectively recruited to sites of inflammation. We hypothesized that transmigration of T cells across endothelium might influence cell survival. We have generated T cell lines by culturing in IL-2 following PHA activation. These T cell lines die rapidly by apoptosis when deprived of IL-2 (53.7 +/- 4.0% survival after 24 h). In contrast, cells that have migrated across human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) survived significantly better than control cells (80.3 +/- 3.6%, n= 18, P<0.001). Endothelial cell conditioned medium was also able to reduce apoptosis, but this effect was small when compared with the protective effect of transmigration. Culture of T lymphocytes on fibronectin, or RGD peptides, or in suspension with a range of chemokines active on T cells, including RANTES and lymphotactin had no effect on survival. In contrast, blocking LFA-l/ICAM-l interactions reduced the protective effect of transmigration (42.3 +/- 6.7% reduction). Culture of activated T cells on immobilized ICAM-l alone also increased survival. These results indicate that signals received by activated T cells during extravasation can influence their subsequent survival within tissue, and implicates the involvement of LF A-l/ICAM-l interactions.