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Interleukin 10 is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokine. Little is known regarding its induction in monocytes/macrophages, however LPS, a reproducible trigger of IL-10, is augmented by direct contact with T cells. In this context, the role of CD40-ligation is investigated. In the rheumatoid synovium, IL-10 is produced by tissue macrophages. Monocytes primed with M-CSF, a cytokine present in rheumatoid joints, produced IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-10 upon CD40-ligation at an IL-1: TNF-alpha: IL-10 ratio of 10:0.5:1. IFN-gamma-primed monocytes, however, predominantly produced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. Both differentiated monocytes display an endogenous IL-10 activity regulatable by CD40 stimulation. Additionally, these monocytes display differential control by exogenous and endogenous IL-1 and TNF-alpha. M-CSF-primed monocyte IL-10 production was dependent on endogenous TNF-alpha and, to a lesser extent, IL-1, whereas IFN-gamma-primed monocytes were partially dependent on endogenous IL-1. The addition of exogenous IL-1 augments CD40 induced IL-10 production by IFN-gamma-primed monocytes. These data indicate that CD40 ligation regulates cell contact mediated macrophage IL-10 and that the route of differentiation determines the cytokine profile.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1496 - 1505


CD40 Antigens, Cell Differentiation, Cell Membrane, Coculture Techniques, Cytokines, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Humans, Interferon-gamma, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-10, Leukocytes, Mononuclear, Lipopolysaccharides, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Macrophages, Monocytes, Phenotype, Signal Transduction, Time Factors, Transfection, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha