Macrophage Gal/GalNAc lectin 2 (MGL2)+ peritoneal antigen presenting cells during Fasciola hepatica infection are essential for regulatory T cell induction
Costa M., da Costa V., Lores P., Landeira M., Rodríguez-Zraquia SA., Festari MF., Freire T.
AbstractFasciola hepatica, one of the agents that causes fasciolosis, modulates the host immune system to allow parasite survival in the host. F. hepatica expresses carbohydrate-containing glycoconjugates that are decoded by C-type lectin receptors, such as Dectin-1, mannose receptor, DC-SIGN and MGL, that are mainly present on myeloid antigen presenting cells (APCs) and can mediate immunoregulatory properties on T cells. In particular, Macrophage Gal/GalNAc lectin 2 (MGL2) expands modified Th2 immune responses, while suppressing Th1 polarization, upon recognition of GalNAc-glycosylated parasite components. In this study, by using MGL2-DTR transgenic mice that encode human diphtheria toxin receptor in MGL2+ cells, we demonstrate the role of peritoneal APCs during F. hepatica infection in favoring parasite survival. This process might be mediated by the induction of splenic Tregs in vivo, since the depletion of MGL2+ cells conferred mice with partial resistance to the infection and abrogated the increase of CD4+/CD25+ FoxP3+ Tregs induced by the parasite. Therefore, MGL2+ cells are critical determinants of F. hepatica infection and could constitute immune checkpoints to control parasite infection.