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BACKGROUND: Increased firing across glutamatergic synapses may contribute to both the motor dysfunction and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia seen in Parkinson's disease. Given their ability to reduce glutamate release, activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors such as metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 may prove effective against both motor dysfunction and dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesised that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 by an orthosteric agonist ((2S)-2-amino-4-(hydroxy(hydroxy(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl)methyl)phosphoryl)butanoic acid, LSP1-2111) would produce antiparkinsonian activity and reduce expression of dyskinesia in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl,1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated marmoset model of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Common marmosets were previously treated with MPTP and pre-primed with L-DOPA for up to 28 days to express dyskinesia. LSP1-2111 (1, 3, or 6 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicle (0.9% saline s.c.) were administered immediately prior to L-DOPA (8 mg/kg + benserazide (10 mg/kg) p.o.) or vehicle (10% sucrose p.o.). Locomotor activity was measured in automated test cages and animals were scored for dyskinesia and disability. RESULTS: As expected, L-DOPA reversed motor disability and induced moderate dyskinesia. By contrast, LSP1-2111 alone significantly reduced the motor disability without any accompanying expression of dyskinesia. When administered in combination with L-DOPA, LSP1-2111 did not significantly reduce the severity of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of LSP1-2111 reduces motor disability without causing dyskinesia in MPTP-treated marmosets, supporting a role for metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 orthosteric agonists as promising monotherapy for PD. Conversely, this study found no evidence to support their use as antidyskinetic agents within the dose range tested.

Original publication




Journal article


J Parkinsons Dis

Publication Date





959 - 967


Dyskinesia, Parkinson’s disease, levodopa, motor disability, 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, Animals, Callithrix, Disabled Persons, Disease Models, Animal, Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced, Female, Levodopa, Male, Motor Activity, Motor Disorders, Parkinson Disease, Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate