Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a global health crisis and will likely continue to impact public health for years. As the effectiveness of the innate immune response is crucial to patient outcome, huge efforts have been made to understand how dysregulated immune responses may contribute to disease progression. Here we have reviewed current knowledge of cellular innate immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, highlighting areas for further investigation and suggesting potential strategies for intervention. We conclude that in severe COVID-19 initial innate responses, primarily type I interferon, are supressed or sabotaged which results in an early IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β-enhanced hyperinflammation. This inflammatory environment is driven by aberrant function of innate immune cells: monocytes, macrophages and NK cells dispersing viral pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into tissues. This results in primarily neutrophil-driven pathology including fibrosis that causes Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Activated leukocytes and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) also promote immunothrombotic clots that embed into the lungs and kidneys of severe COVID-19 patients, are worsened by immobility in the intensive care unit (ICU) and are perhaps responsible for the high mortality. Therefore, treatments that target inflammation and coagulation are promising strategies for reducing mortality in COVID-19.</jats:p>

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/oxfimm/iqaa005

Type

Journal article

Journal

Oxford Open Immunology

Publisher

Oxford University Press (OUP)

Publication Date

08/12/2020