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  • Neuroimaging as a tool for pain diagnosis and analgesic development.

    12 December 2017

    Neuroimaging makes it possible to study pain processing beyond the peripheral nervous system, at the supraspinal level, in a safe, noninvasive way, without interfering with neurophysiological processes. In recent years, studies using brain imaging methods have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Moreover, neuroimaging shows promising results for analgesic drug development and in characterizing different types of pain, bringing us closer to development of mechanism-based diagnoses and treatments for the chronic pain patient.

  • Measurement of brain temperature with magnetic resonance spectroscopy in acute ischemic stroke.

    12 December 2017

    OBJECTIVE: Pyrexia is associated with poor outcome after stroke, but the temperature changes in the brain after stroke are poorly understood. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (water-to-N-acetylaspartate frequency shift) to measure cerebral temperature noninvasively in stroke patients. METHODS: We performed magnetic resonance diffusion, perfusion (diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging), and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, compared temperatures in tissues as defined by the diffusion-weighted imaging appearance (definitely abnormal, possibly abnormal and immediately adjacent normal-appearing brain, and normal brain), and tested associations with lesion and patient characteristics. RESULTS: Among 40 patients, temperature was higher in possibly abnormal (37.63 degrees C) than in definitely abnormal tissue (37.30 degrees C; p < 0.001) or in normal-appearing brain (ipsilateral, 37.16 degrees C; contralateral, 37.22 degrees C; both p < 0.001). Ischemic lesion temperature increased before normal brain temperature. Higher temperatures occurred in lesions that were large, had diffusion/perfusion-weighted imaging mismatch, had reduced cerebral blood flow, and in clinically severe strokes. Only 1 of 25 patients with ischemic lesion temperature greater than 37.5 degrees C was pyrexial. INTERPRETATION: Temperature is elevated in acutely ischemic brain. More work is required to determine whether raised temperature results from ischemic metabolic reactions, impaired heat exchange from reduced cerebral blood flow, or early inflammatory cell activity (or a combination of these), but magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging could be used in studies of temperature after brain injury and to monitor interventions.

  • Measurement of regional brain temperature using proton spectroscopic imaging: validation and application to acute ischemic stroke.

    12 December 2017

    A magnetic resonance proton spectroscopic imaging (SI) technique was developed to measure regional brain temperatures in human subjects. The technique was validated in a homogeneous phantom and in four healthy volunteers. Simulations and calculations determined the theoretical measurement precision as approximately +/-0.3 degrees C for individual 1-ml voxels. In healthy volunteers, repeated measurements on individual voxels had an S.D. = 1.2 degrees C. In a clinical study, 40 patients with acute ischemic stroke were imaged within 26 h (mean, 10 h) of onset. Temperatures were highest in the region that appeared abnormal (i.e., ischemic) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) compared with a normal-appearing brain. The mean temperature difference between the DWI "lesion" area and the "normal brain" was 0.17 degrees C [P < 10(-3); range, 2.45 degrees C (hotter)-2.17 degrees C (cooler)]. Noninvasive temperature measurement by SI has sufficient precision to be used in studies of pathophysiology in stroke and in other brain disorders and to monitor therapies.

  • Carotid flow rates and flow division at the bifurcation in healthy volunteers.

    12 December 2017

    In nine healthy subjects, magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood flow waveforms in the common (CCA), internal (ICA) and external (ECA) carotid arteries. Useful data were acquired from 14 carotid arteries in total. Flow rates were determined from regions of interest placed over the arteries in CINE-phase contrast velocity encoded images. Use of a normalized cardiac cycle allowed the combination of flow waveforms from individuals. Time-averaged group mean flow rates were 6.16, 4.14 and 1.59 ml s(-1) for the CCA, ICA and ECA, respectively. Time-averaged values for the flow division ratios ICA/CCA, ECA/ICA and ECA/CCA were 0.70, 0.39 and 0.26, respectively. The data will be of use in future physiological studies and in computational modelling of carotid artery haemodynamics.

  • Histology information

    8 October 2015

  • Inflammatory Arthritis Microbiome Consortium

    15 May 2017

    Bacteria and other microorganisms of the intestinal tract (collectively known as the gut microbiota) have fundamental roles in maintaining a healthy immune system. The ultimate goal of the Inflammatory Arthritis Microbiome Consortium (IAMC) is to manipulate the human microbiota for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis.

  • Inflammatory Arthritis Microbiome Consortium

    11 November 2015

    Kennedy Institute leads international consortium to investigate the link between gut bacteria and arthritis.

  • Homepage

    2 July 2015

  • A New Location

    15 May 2017

    As part of its relocation to Oxford the Kennedy Institute moved to a new £34 million purpose-built building located on the University Old Road Campus in 2013.

  • Events

    14 December 2015

  • Contact Us

    11 October 2015

  • About the Kennedy Institute

    1 January 2012

    The Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology is a world-leading medical research centre where discovery research drives development of transformative therapies for chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease.

  • External DPhil programmes

    15 October 2015